The most widely utilized man-made substance on the planet is concrete. It is a significant building material used widely in constructing buildings, bridges, highways, and dams.

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Concrete has an extensive variety of applications, including curbs, pipelines, and sewers. There are several advantages to concrete: It is a low-cost material with long life and minor maintenance requirements. It is also vital in compression. It is a very resilient material that can be readily molded before it hardens, and it is non-combustible before it solidifies. The aggregate or cement used in concrete and the process used to make it affect its properties. In conventional structural concrete, the water-to-cement ratio is the deciding element, with a lower water content resulting in a block of stronger concrete.

Concrete cracks repair

Concrete fractures can be either structural or surface fissures. Surface cracks are usually only a few millimeters in width and depth. Hairline cracks are commonly referred to as “hairline” cracks because they can be single, thin cracks or fissures in a craze/map-like pattern. A few surfaces or shrinkage cracks are frequent and typically do not create any difficulties. Freeze-thaw cycles, poor building methods, and alkali-aggregate reactivity can all produce surface fissures. Crazing or map fractures are caused by alkali-aggregate reactivity, which happens when the aggregate interacts with the cement. In addition, surface cracks may form as a result of laying fresh concrete over old. This occurs when the new concrete shrinks as it ages.

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Efflorescence renovation

Efflorescence is a white, crystalline material that can appear on concrete surfaces, particularly spillway sidewalls. It’s generally seen along the hairline or in minor fractures. Water entering through the pores or tiny fractures in the definite causes efflorescence.

When water evaporates, minerals that have been leached from the soil, fill, or concrete are left behind. Efflorescence isn’t usually a structural issue. However, efflorescence should be monitored. It can show how much water is seeping through thin cracks in the concrete and identify locations where problems (such as insufficient drainage behind the wall or concrete degradation) may arise.

Erosion fixing

Abrasion causes abrasion erosion, which results in a deteriorated concrete surface. It’s generated by an aggregate or other material rubbing and grinding against the concrete surface of a spillway channel or stilling basin.

Minor erosion is not a concern, but severe erosion can compromise the concrete’s structural integrity. If the erosion is severe, a qualified professional engineer should create designs and specifications for repair. The outcome of cavitation-induced erosion is a rough, pitted concrete surface. Cavitation is a damaging process that involves the creation of sub-atmospheric pressures, turbulent flow, and impact energy.

Spalling and Popouts repair

The loss of bigger chunks or flakes of concrete is known as spalling. It is normally affected by a sudden impact with anything dumped on the concrete or concrete tension that exceeds the design parameters. Popouts can result from spalling on a smaller scale. Water is saturated, coarse aggregate particles at the top freezes, expands, and pushes off the top of the aggregate and accompanying mortar, forming a shallow conical depression. Popouts are not usually a structural issue. A qualified professional engineer should develop designs and specifications to remedy the spalling if it is extensive and causes structural damage.
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